Gastropoda | Archaeogastropoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 349). Tropical; 32°N - 25°S, 45°E - 171°E (Ref. 81851)
Indo-Pacific: from Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, to as far east as French Polynesia, north to southern Japan and Hawaii, and south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 15.0 cm SHH male/unsexed; (Ref. 349); common length : 11.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 349)
It is the most economically important gastropod species in the tropical West Pacific. It is both an important traditional food and a leading export item used as a source of mother-of-pearl material for buttons and jewelry. Many small sized artisanal fisheries for meat and shell exist in other islands of the area. Due to severe and frequent overfishing, management policies are often adopted and aquaculture trials are under way (Ref. 349). Maximum depth from Ref. 799. Typically found in shallow, high energy portions of the reefs. Feeds on filamentous algae and generally avoids bottoms of sand and living corals. Population density generally decreasing in deeper areas, while the mean size of individuals increases (Ref. 349). Breeding period is marked by spring tides with external fertilization and nocturnal spawning (Ref. 81851). The presence of sperm induce female spawning (Ref. 81851).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breeding period is marked by spring tides with external fertilization and nocturnal spawning.
Poutiers, J.M. 1998. (Ref. 349)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
): 26.3 - 29.3, mean 28.7 (based on 2725 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)