Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pacific Ocean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 619.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.83 cm; tarsus: 3.07 cm; wing: 18.97 cm.
Total Length: 36 to 41 cm; Wingspan: 56 to 58 cm (Ref. 8812). With sperm-storage glands allowing delayed fertilization of ovum (Ref. 87784). Plunge diver; continental shelf; <100 km (Ref. 356). As in all seabirds, copulation takes place ashore and the presence sperm-storage glands allow delayed fertilization of ovum out at sea. Vulnerable to oil spill as a piscivore; saw 50% decline in population from 1989 in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harding, A.M.A., J.F. Piatt and K.C. Hamer. 2003. (Ref. 6483)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.2 - 10.2, mean 2.6 (based on 759 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100)