Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); common length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 2.8 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.255 cm; tarsus: 1.94 cm.
This species is gregarious, noisy and quarrelsome, and it is known to breed in huge colonies on steep cliffs (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cherel, Y., C.-A. Bost, C. Guinet and H. Weimerskirch. 2005. (Ref. 89128)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models