Gastropoda | Neogastropoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 105998). Subtropical, preferred 20°C (Ref. 107945); 45°N - 30°N, 10°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: from Portugal to central Morocco in the Atlantic, and east to Lebanon. Introduced in Atlantic Spain.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 3.9 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 78158)
Has high economic value since ancient times because it is used to produce a purple dye (Refs. 78459, 78460 and 78461). Max length from survey in Sant Carles de le Ràpita, > 39 mm length without siphonal canal (Ref. 78158). Carnivorous and feeds on bivalves and other gastropods (Ref. 2532). The reproductive cycle had two peaks (April and June -July) but the first one seems to be less important because the number of immature females is higher than the mature ones (Ref. 78158).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Showed an annual reproductive cycle in the Catalan coast. The reproductive cycle had two peaks (April and June -July) but the first one seems to be less important because the number of immature females is higher than the mature ones.
Museum of Natural History in Paris. 2005. (Ref. 1056)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 16.2 - 21.6, mean 19.3 (based on 132 cells).
Prior r = 0.97, 95% CL = 0.64 - 1.46, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)