Cephalopoda | Myopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 75927); depth range 30 - 170 m (Ref. 275). Tropical; 15°C - 28°C (Ref. 75930); 53°N - 27°S, 32°E - 150°E (Ref. 97142)
Indo-Pacific. Tropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0  range ? - ? cm Max length : 50.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 75927)
Also caught by jigs and set nets. 30cm in Hong Kong, common mantle length in commercial catches ranges between 15 and 25 cm (Ref. 3722). Found in the continental shelf; winters inshore, in shallow waters. Spawning period extends throughout the year, with peaks in spring, summer, and autumn. Spawning grounds were recorded from 30 to 100 m, on sandy bottom in coastal waters influenced by inflow of warm oceanic currents. Life span is about one year. Juveniles prefer crustaceans; adults primarily feed on fishes (Ref. 114973).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 21.8 - 28.1, mean 26.6 (based on 297 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100)