Bivalvia | Cardiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 35 m (Ref. 75831). Tropical; 23°C - 30°C (Ref. 102835); 38°N - 29°S, 92°E - 178°W
Indo-Pacific: from Myanmar then east to Wallis and Futuna, north to Japan and south to western Australia. Introduced beyond Wallis and Futuna in the Pacific.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 25 - 35 cm Max length : 137 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 99323); common length : 80.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348); max. published weight: 500.0 kg (Ref. 81839)
It is white and fan-shaped with deep radiating ribs.
Known to be the largest bivalve mollusks that exist. Exploited for its meat and shell, this species has recently become nearly extinct within an important part of its range, due to over collecting. Trials of aquaculture under progress for the restocking of reefs and local farming (Ref. 348). Facultative planktotroph. It has an established symbiotic relationship with a dinoflagellate algae (zooxanthellae) which allows them to survive. It ingests the algae at an early stage and the latter propagates in the gut (Ref. 100719).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Becomes simultaneous hermaphrodite in its later years. Spawning is seasonal, based on its northern and southern limits of distribution (Ref. 100714).
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO - Aquaculture: production; | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.2).
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2805 cells).
Very high vulnerability (82 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 149 [71, 228] mg/100g; Iron = 8.53 [1.95, 15.11] mg/100g; Protein = 9.88 [8.64, 11.12] %; Omega3 = 0.313 [0.202, 0.423] g/100g; Selenium = 61 [50, 72] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 2.04 [0.56, 3.51] mg/100g (wet weight).