Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 120.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.754 cm; tarsus: 2.079 cm; wing: 27.96 cm.
Total Length: 32 to 38 cm; Wingspan: 79 to 81 cm (Ref. 8812). A coastal species (Ref. 356), found in the beach, shoreline, islands and pelagic zone (Ref. 116102). Primarily forages inshore. In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, they are known to partially feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus. Breeding pairs share incubation and chick-rearing duties in nesting colonies (Ref. 95711). Displays dipping behavior (Ref. 356). They surface-feed by scooping prey from the water and carry it in their bills. Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5 - 29, mean 25 (based on 5782 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100)