Cephalopoda | Spirulida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 100 - 1750 m (Ref. 1695). Tropical; ? - 10°C (Ref. 1695); 69°N - 32°S, 89°W - 160°W
Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical oceanic waters. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - ? cm Max length : 4.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 1695)
Minimum depth from Ref. 106682. Rarely exceeds 4.5 cm ML (Ref. 1695). Migrates from 550 to 1000 meters during the day, and 100 to 300 meters at night (Ref. 106682). Young is captured at depths 1,000 to 1,750 m, which suggests that females lay eggs on bottom of continental slopes (Ref. 1695). Dead shells washed up on the beaches often in large numbers (Ref. 88739).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.7 - 11.6, mean 7.1 (based on 951 cells).