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Sepia pharaonis   Ehrenberg, 1831

Pharaoh cuttlefish

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sepia pharaonis  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sepia pharaonis (Pharaoh cuttlefish)
Sepia pharaonis
Picture by FAO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Cephalopoda | Sepiida | Sepiidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Benthic; depth range 0 - 130 m (Ref. 1695), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 275).  Tropical; 41°N - 26°S, 32°E - 151°E (Ref. 1695)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-West Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea: from Red Sea to Japan and Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 1.0, range 1 - 1 cm Max length : 43.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 33 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 5.0 kg

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common sizes in landings range from 15 to 20 cm (Ref. 3722). This species supports industrial or artisanal fisheries throughout its range. Mostly fished and abundant in Gulf and the Andaman Sea. This species has been grown successfully in culture and techniques are being developed to culture the animals commercially (Ref. 1695). Minimum depth from Ref. 103582. Benthic (Ref. 105085). Epibenthic (Ref. 116259). Most common in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 801). Commonly found over sand and seagrass beds (Ref. 102838). Active predator and exhibits cannibalism (Ref. 105085). Feeds on crustaceans, small fish (Ref. 801) and cephalopods (Ref. 105085). Able to change color rapidly (Ref. 102838).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 18 March 2009

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: potential
| FishSource |


More information

FAO areas
Food items
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 1516 cells).
Resilience (Ref. 69278)
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)