Bivalvia | Venerida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; pH range: 13.5 - 35.0; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 356). Tropical; ? - 35°C (Ref. 104360), preferred 18°C (Ref. 107945); 56°N - 11°S, 75°E - 164°E (Ref. 348)
Indo-Pacific and the Mediterranean: from India and Sri Lanka to Micronesia; north to Sakhalin, the Japan Sea and Hawaii (introduced), and south to Indonesia. Introduced in the Northeast Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 2.7  range ? - ? cm Max length : 8.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348); common length : 5.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 104360)
Introduced incidentally with Japanese oysters (Crassostrea gigas), or for aquaculture trials, in many areas (Ref. 348). Found in littoral to sublittoral sediments (Ref. 1314). Intertidal and upper subtidal flats (Ref. 106937). Common in protected marine areas (Ref. 348). With short siphons and buries to only about 10 cm deep in a variety of substrates, from mud, sand, and gravel, high along intertidal areas (Refs. 95344, 104238). Occasionally overlaps with Zostera japonica beds or Zostera marina beds in the intertidal (Ref. 106937). Suspension feeder. Diet includes phytoplankton (Refs. 104238, 104360), benthic diatoms, and terrestrial organic matter (Ref. 104238). Spawning occurs throughout the year, peaking once (Ref. 97475).
Broadcast spawners. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger (with ciliated vellum to assist mobility and feeding), resembling a miniature clam. After 2-4 weeks, it develops into a peliveliger with a formed foot to assist further with swimming, as well as byssal threads to help the clam secure itself onto the seafloor once it finds a suitable substrate to settle on. Burrowing into the ground allows the animal to find food and be protected from predators. Once settled, it will stay in the substrate and continue to grow into a mature clam.
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production, species profile; Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 15.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 1790 cells).
Prior r = 1.19, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.79, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).