Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Arctic, Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 72.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 1.6 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.67 cm; tarsus: 6.34 cm; wing: 26.45 cm.
In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, this species primarily forage inshore and breeding birds only spend approx. 30% of daylight period at sea, feeding primarily on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus. They surface-feed by scooping prey from the water and also able to exploit the water column by diving. They form nesting colonies with breeding pairs sharing incubation and chick-rearing duties. Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Amundsen, T. and J.N. Stokland. 1990. (Ref. 91589)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.5 - 19.6, mean 12.3 (based on 985 cells).