Malacostraca | Decapoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 5 - 200 m (Ref. 85369), usually 10 - 70 m (Ref. 4). Subtropical; 12°C - 16°C (Ref. 114562), preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 61°N - 27°N, 32°W - 36°E (Ref. 114562)
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: from Norway to Morocco.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0, range 1 - 1 cm Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 441); common length : 40.0 cm BASL male/unsexed; (Ref. 441); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 85318)
Traditionally caught by traps, pots and sometimes by hand (e.g., diving and spearing; Refs. 441, 85369), but these gears were eventually replaced with trammel nets (Ref. 85369). Minimum depth from Ref. 4. Occurs at depths between shore to 200 m, on rocky bottoms and coralligenous substrates where there are lots of protective holes and micro-caves. Adults may be solitary, in pairs or in small groups. Highly omnivorous and preys on hard-shelled bottom dwelling organisms, i.e., mollusks, echinoderms and crustaceans. They are generalists and opportunistic feeders depending on the abundance of benthic organisms (Ref. 85369). Ovigerous females are observed from September to October and February to March (Ref. 4).
Breeds once a year between June and October. Larger females mate and lay eggs earlier during breeding season while smaller females spawn towards the end (Ref. 85364).
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. (Ref. 4)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.7 - 19.6, mean 11.9 (based on 808 cells).
Prior r = 0.22, 95% CL = 0.13 - 0.37, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100)