Demospongiae | Dictyoceratida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; brackish; depth range 1 - 17 m (Ref. 108813). Tropical
Western Atlantic: Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 0.5 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Massive-globular with large sharp conules: up to 0.5 cm high; regularly spaced up to 1.3 cm apart. Membrane-bearing oscules: 0.2 - 1.5 cm wide; usually grouped onto a depression on top of the sponge. Dark gray to black externally, tan internally. Tough very hard to cut (Ref. 415). Morphology: fan, lobate, massive or spherical (Ref. 81728). Color often paler near the base, rarely almost white with. Black oscules; small specimens have only one oscule (Ref. 85482).
Common on shallow reefs, seagrass beds (Ref. 415) and hard bottoms. Also found in mangroves (Ref. 86836). Occasionally on deeper muddy sand bottoms. Often emits a strong, sulfurous pungent scent when removed from the water (Ref. 85482). In Belize, it was found in a submarine cave near Columbus Cay (Ref. 87209). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés. 2005. (Ref. 415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 23.7 - 28.1, mean 27.3 (based on 722 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)