Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Subtropical
Western Atlantic Ocean and Indo-Pacific. Subtropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 59.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 662.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.87 cm; wing: 40.02 cm.
Total Length: 48 to 59 cm; Wingspan: 127 to 140 cm (Ref. 8812). Estuarine. Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Plunge diver; dipping; coastal (Ref. 356). Low rate of mate retention; 75% of individuals change mates between years; attributed to tendency to change nesting localities annually. Nests solitarily or colonially. Variations in nest site quality and mate quality observed. Shifts breeding location and colony site when environment becomes unstable; as in cases of flooding, a factor reducing site fidelity. Possibly a pollutant-related behavioral response to PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) levels in the North American Great Lakes is lower nest-site tenacity of this species in the area. On the Colombia River, world's largest colony of Caspian Terns were questionably displaced in an attempt to protect hatchery-raised salmon molts on the river (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 9.8 - 29.1, mean 27.4 (based on 4475 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)