Aves | Procellariiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and the Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 135 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); common length : 107 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 8.8 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 16.55 cm; tarsus: 15.14 cm; wing: 68.27 cm.
Total Length: 107 to 135 cm (Ref. 8812); with the largest wingspan of any living bird (Ref. 82700). Total annual breeding population is 14,000 pairs or about 100,000 birds. They are known to breed bienially (Ref. 84934). Macquarie population endangered; Australian Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 (Ref. 8812). Increase in mortality is caused by drowning on long-lines (Ref. 84934). Oceanic; predominantly offshore over waters >1000m depth (Ref. 89480). Breeds in loose colonies on grassy headlands and plateaux of oceanic islands. Follows ships (Ref. 91362). Feeds by scavenging and surface seizing (Ref. 89480). They have highly acidic stomachs (<2) pH that allows rapid digestion (Ref. 104317).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.5 - 12, mean 4.6 (based on 1528 cells).
Very high vulnerability (81 of 100)