Bivalvia | Ostreoida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 79 m (Ref. 83435). Subtropical, preferred 22°C (Ref. 107945)
Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 30.0 cm SHH male/unsexed; (Ref. 271); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 2823)
Diagnostic features: Shell thick and heavy, usually narrow and elongate, but extremely variable in shape. Upper valve flatter, smaller than lower valve; lower valve convex. Shell shape and outline variable. Shell margins undulating straight. Umbones long and curved. Colour: dirty to light grey, internally white with muscle scar deep purple (Ref. 271).
It has a total length of 30 cm. Fisheries: It suffers from overexploitation and contamination by organic pollutants; consumed raw, fried, grilled, boiled; canned industrially (Ref. 271). Aquaculture: Increased production is based on the triploid method (using gametes from hatcheries), wherein tetraploid males are used to fertilize eggs from diploid females instead of chemical or physical stress to produce triploids (Refs. 101295, 101299). Oysters can be grown to market size (7.6 cm) in a span of 6 months (Ref. 96250). Attached to rocks, other oyster shells, or other hard substrates (Ref. 271). Favors estuaries and embayments with low salinities and are intolerant of prolonged exposure to fresh water or marine conditions. They may either be filter feeders (Ref. 96280) or suspension feeders (Ref. 3248). Found in shallow water of tidal to subtidal depth of fairly constant turbidity and salinity (Ref. 3248) and salt marshes (Ref. 2823). Main sources of food are phytoplankton, suspended detritus particles (Ref. 96280) and bacteria (Ref. 101343). Able to regulate its feeding rates based on differences in size, type and composition of the food source (Ref. 96280). Gonochoristic (separate male and females). After external fertilization, the developing larvae or veliger settles to the bottom after a time in the plankton stage. First spawning usually occurs when oyster is two years of age (Ref. 3248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gonochoristic (separate male and females). After external fertilization, the developing larvae or veliger settles to the bottom after a time in the plankton stage. First spawning usually occurs when oyster is two years of age (Ref. 3248).
Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). 2002. (Ref. 271)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO - Aquaculture: production, species profile; Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.7 - 27.5, mean 23.5 (based on 794 cells).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 7 stock assessments.
Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100)