Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others. Tropical; 33°N - 37°S, 104°E - 12°E
Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 144.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.72 cm; tarsus: 2.5 cm; wing: 23.5 cm.
Total Length: 35 to 39 cm; Wingspan: 66 (Ref. 8812) to 76 cm (Refs. 84934, 91362). Total population is over 200,000 pairs (Ref. 84934). Coastal to <10 km offshore (Ref. 356). Found on coastal rock, and over sea (Ref. 83946). Breeds annually in dense colonies, preferably in bushes and trees in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Ref. 84934). They are double-brooded. When there is danger, alarm calls are given by adults and chicks respond by crouching in place (Ref. 87784). Highly pelagic. Typically feeds far out at sea in large, gregarious flocks over shoals of predatory fish (Ref. 91362). Exhibits dipping and surface-seizing foraging behavior (Ref. 356). Feed mainly by dipping, hovering and picking from or just below the surface of the water. Also, shallow-plunging (Ref. 126735).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lusk, M.R., P. Bruner and C. Kessler. 2000. (Ref. 5591)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 24.2 - 29.3, mean 28.2 (based on 2178 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100).