Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; depth range 0 - 120 m (Ref. 62202). Polar; 82°N - 27°N, 80°W - 42°E (Ref. 124582)
Northwest Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic and the Arctic: Polar to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 719.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.45 cm; tarsus: 2.963 cm; wing: 21.13 cm.
Total Length: 40 to 45 cm; Wingspan: 63 to 66 cm (Ref. 8812). Found along coasts; <15 km (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, this species primarily forage inshore and feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Ref. 95711). Known to be pursuit divers (Ref. 356). They surface-feed by scooping prey from the water and also able to exploit the water column by diving; carrying prey in their bills back to their colony. In nesting colonies, breeding pairs share incubation and chick-rearing duties. Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711). Breeds in small numbers (Ref. 118435).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breeds from northern Europe east to Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and coastal North America from Baffin Island south to the Maritime Provinces and Maine. Winters from Greenland south even to South Carolina, and in Europe to the Mediterranean. Eggs are laid from early June to early August (Ref. 87872).
Camphuysen, C.J.K. 1998. (Ref. 7319)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 2.3 - 12.7, mean 8.1 (based on 1259 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100)