Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and the Arctic. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cmmax. published weight: 998.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 2.55 cm; tarsus: 3.598 cm; wing: 26.7 cm.
Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Coastal. Pelagic. Exhibits surface-seizing and plunge-diving behavior (Ref. 356). Opportunistic feeders. Feeds on small fish and small invertebrates, mainly crustaceans and insects; as well as faeces and carcasses. An arctic breeder; breeding area almost circumpolar with the exception of the Eurasian coast of Arctic Ocean. Nests on islets and flat, moist, grassy terrain of tundras, in pairs or small colonies. Often nests within colonies of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea). Common clutch size of 2 eggs. Migrates over oceanic waters southbound to western South America and south-southwestern Africa (Ref. 95138).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 1.8 - 15.5, mean 8.5 (based on 1479 cells).