Cephalopoda | Myopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Demersal; depth range 3 - 170 m (Ref. 275). Tropical; 30°N - 15°S, 32°E - 131°E (Ref. 275)
Indo-West Pacific: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Arabian Sea, eastwards from Mozambique to South China Sea and the Philippine Sea, northward to Taiwan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0, range 9 - 12.9 cm Max length : 40.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 116232); 23.5 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 275); max. reported age: 3.00 years (Ref. 275)
Maximum size for female, 23.5 cm, mantle length from Ref. 116229. Minimum depth from Ref. 104457. Neritic, on shallow waters (Ref. 275). Feeds on fishes, crustaceans and squids (Refs. 275, 104236). Cannibalism is common (Ref. 275).
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.3-2.25; tm=1; tmax=3).
): 22.9 - 28.6, mean 27.4 (based on 961 cells).
Low vulnerability (14 of 100).