Bivalvia | Cardiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 348), usually 0 - 15 m (Ref. 75831). Tropical; 23°C - 30°C (Ref. 102835); 19°N - 34°S, 100°E - 174°W (Ref. 106696)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 60.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348); common length : 50.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348)
It is characterized by a low primary and radial sculpture, variable shape, massive umbonal area and smooth white shell.
Locally exploited for meat and shell. This species was previously quite abundant, but has been over collected in many areas. Aquaculture attempts being made (Ref. 348). Found in intertidal areas on corals (Ref. 75831), mainly on reef flats, barrier reefs, fore reefs and atoll lagoons (Ref. 117184). Common in shallow waters wherein juveniles are byssally attached to the tops and sides of coral outcrops. Adults are thought to detach their byssus and settle in clear ocean conditions at 20 m depth (Ref. 101207).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production; | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2248 cells).
High vulnerability (64 of 100)