Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 850 m (Ref. 275). Tropical; 9°C - 18°C (Ref. 417); 73°N - 44°S, 18°W - 155°E
Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean and Indo-West Pacific. Tropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.8, range 20 - ? cm Max length : 16.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 29 cm ML (female); common length : 13.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); common length :20 cm ML (female)
Maximum size for female, 29 cm, mantle length from Ref. 104052. Maximum depth from Ref. 122892. Neritic (Ref. 90638). Pelagic (Ref. 122890), demersal (Ref. 122892). Mainly lives in the lower sublittoral and upper bathyal over the continental shelf, associated with sandy and muddy bottoms. More abundant in highly productive areas around the shelf break. Frequents the upper slope of regions with steep slopes (Ref. 122892). Also found in the slope. Voracious opportunistic predator (Ref. 90638). Feeds on teleosts, crustaceans, squids and gastropods (Ref. 107051). Two main spawning seasons, during spring and autumn-winter (Ref. 2465).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Two main spawning seasons, during spring and autumn-winter.
Schneider, W. 1990. (Ref. 417)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.2 - 21, mean 11.3 (based on 776 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)