Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthopelagic; depth range 20 - 4595 m (Ref. 81305). Tropical, preferred 20°C (Ref. 107945); 85°N - 6°S, 26°W - 158°E (Ref. 112293)
Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Arctic: Congo Dem Rep to Gibraltar, Mediterranean, Spain to Iceland, to Russian Arctic up to Sakha Republic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0, range 1 - ? cm Max length : 75.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 3722); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 120431); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 120431)
Common mantle length ranges between 25 and 35 cm (Ref. 3722). In the Mediterranean Sea no individual was caught in the hauls taken above a depth of 100 m (Ref. 81305). However, studies carried out in Norwegian waters indicated that it occurs in coastal and bank areas 80-200 m and even more superficially at 20-100 m (Ref.81307). It was also observed from the North Atlantic Ridge at a depth of 1947 m (Ref. 81308). Maximum depth from Ref. 1985. Demersal, neritic (Ref. 112172). Occurs from the surface to a depth of 2500 m (Ref. 2614). Juveniles feed mainly on fishes while adults consume crustaceans (Ref. 112351). Migrates to offshore waters during winter; spawning is thought to occur in the continental slope (Ref. 2614).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Schneider, W. 1990. (Ref. 417)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 2 - 14.3, mean 9.3 (based on 570 cells).
Prior r = 0.38, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.57, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100)