Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pacific Ocean and the Arctic. Subtropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 206.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 2.963 cm; tarsus: 3.175 cm; wing: 14.605 cm.
Total Length: 24 to 27 cm (Ref. 8812). Found along continental shelf and coastal waters. Exhibits plunge diving behavior (Ref. 356). Ritualized displays and vocalizations in the colony during breeding season include duetting bouts which may last for up to 30 minutes. In the Bering Sea and Alaska, the 1997-1998 ENSO event caused half the breeding population to desert their eggs and breeding success of those that bred reduced to 57% (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 1.4 - 11.6, mean 6.3 (based on 402 cells).
Low vulnerability (17 of 100)