Gastropoda | Littorinimorpha
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 2 - 73 m (Ref. 83934), usually ? - 30 m (Ref. 97646). Tropical; 33°N - 2°S, 97°W - 45°W
Western Atlantic: South Carolina to Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - ? cm Max length : 30.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 105315); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 97646)
Shell large, with relatively large spire, flared outer lip with posterior expansion projecting well beyond spire length. Spire taller than other species in genus. Sculpture of sharp knobs along shoulder. Colour: pale tan with thin brown periostracum. Internal shell colour deep pink.
The fisheries have grown exponentially in the last 30 years, with resulting declines in population and area closures. The species has been included on appendix 2 of CITES (Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species). International trade is allowed only from nations in which the populations of the species are not under threat from commercial fishing (Ref. 355). This species is found intertidal and offshore, on coral reefs, particularly on algae, coral sand, and seagrass habitats (Refs. 355, 83934). Adults prefer sandy algal flats; also found on gravel, coral rubble, smooth hard coral and beach rock bottoms. Rarely on soft bottoms of mud and/or silt. Benthic grazer. Feeds on diatoms, seagrass detritus, and various algae and epiphytes. Nocturnal (Ref. 105087).
Copulation may precede spawning. Spawning occurs on a type of calcareous sand formed from the fragmentation of coral reefs, including large quantities of calcareous skeletal remains from small molluscs and calcareous algae. Females deposit the egg mass on the substrate (Ref. 105320). Life cycle: Eggs hatch into veligers after 3-5 days which feed on phytoplankton; after 21 days they undergo metamorphosis (juvenile stage) where they remain buried in the sand and emerge in seagrass beds to feed; adults return to the shallow inshore waters to spawn.
Leal, J.H. 2003. (Ref. 355)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
| FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 25.3 - 28, mean 27 (based on 146 cells).
Prior r = 0.97, 95% CL = 0.64 - 1.45, Based on 4 stock assessments.