Holothuroidea | Synallactida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 122). Tropical
Indo-Pacific, excluding Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0, range 1 - ? cm Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 118); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 122)
Mean live weight: 1000-2500 g. Body-wall thickness: 0.8 cm. Body firm, rigid, square-ish in cross-section, flattened ventrally (trivium). Body wall easily disintegrates outside seawater. Bivium covered with irregular conical warts, arranged in 8 longitudinal rows, with smaller papillae in between. Trivium with yellow to pink podia, arranged in rows on the radii, their disc about 380 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by a circle of conical papillae, small interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Color variable on bivium, yellow to greenish, with black spots; trivium lighter. Spicules with tables in the tegument with 2 forms of discs, some being undulated, with 8 to 20 holes, while others form a denticulate disc with 4 central holes and a variable number of peripheral holes; spire of tables with 4 pillars ending in a moderately spiny perforated crown; some tables with large disc and irregular crown also present; tables in papillae have a very large multiperforated disc; rosettes cross-shaped, branching; X-shaped spicules occur in 3 different sizes; ventral podia with spiny rods and large multiperforated plates showing pentagonal holes; tentacles with long, narrow, and spiny rods and X-, S-, and C-shaped small spicules.
Probably rarely collected as the tegument disintegrates very easily, resulting in a low commercial value of the species. A shallow water species, found in coastal reef and lagoons, mostly from near surface to depths of 25 m. Generally occurs in seagrass beds, rubbles, and muddy-sand bottoms (Ref. 122); on algal beds and on clean sandy bottoms. A pea crab is known to live in the cloacal chamber (Ref. 118). Populations not reaching high densities, with a mean of around 0.005 per square meter (Ref. 122). Spawning occurs between the months of December and January (Ref. 99899).
Sexual reproduction takes place during warm season. A species with a low potential fecundity and late sexual maturity.
Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 26.3 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 3439 cells).
High vulnerability (56 of 100)