Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 110.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.893 cm; tarsus: 1.996 cm; wing: 23.31 cm.
Total Length: 35 to 43 cm; Wingspan: 76 to 79 cm (Ref. 8812). A coastal species; <30 km (Ref. 356). This species primarily forage inshore (Ref. 95711). Displays plunge-diving and dipping behavior (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, they are known to partially feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus. Breeding pairs share incubation and chick-rearing duties in nesting colonies. They surface-feed by scooping prey from the water and carry it in their bills. Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
LeCroy, M. and C.T. Collins. 1972. (Ref. 8531)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 10.6 - 29.2, mean 27.4 (based on 5667 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)