Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 67.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 465.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.2 cm; tarsus: 4.6 cm; wing: 32.0 cm.
Total Length: 46 to 67 cm; Wingspan: 96 to 114 cm (Ref. 8812). Length: 45 cm; Wingspan: 117 cm in Ref. 91362. A coastal species, <50 km offshore (Ref. 356). Exhibits plunging behavior. Kleptoparasitic (Ref. 356). Piratical. Breeds singly or in loose colonies (Ref. 91362).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 2.4 - 27.7, mean 12.9 (based on 5605 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100)