Cephalopoda | Sepiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 21 - 450 m (Ref. 275), usually ? - 35 m (Ref. 275). Subtropical; 81°N - 12°N, 85°W - 37°E
Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and the Arctic: from North Sea to Senegal and throughout the Mediterranean. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 2.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 1695); 6 cm ML (female)
Common mantle length: 4 to 5 cm (Ref. 275). Common mantle length ranges between 4 and 5 cm (Ref. 3722). Minimum depth from Ref. 105700. An epibenthic or mesobenthic species found on sandy and muddy substrates, commonly on Posidonia seagrass beds (Refs. 1695, 123761). Recorded from very shallow waters down to around 450 m. Females over 3 cm mantle length are mature. Mating takes place when males grasp the female's 'neck' region, and spermatophores are placed in the female's bursa copulatrix. In the western Mediterranean, spawning season extends from March to November; longevity estimated at 18 months. (Ref. 1695). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Refs. 275, 1695).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Wood, J.B. and C.L. Day. 1998. (Ref. 3722)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).