Cephalopoda | Sepiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 16 - 500 m (Ref. 1695), usually 150 - 150 m (Ref. 1695). Tropical; 60°N - 15°S, 21°W - 37°E (Ref. 1695)
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: from UK to Angola.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 7.2 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 1695); 8.9 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 60.00 g (Ref. 1695)
Minimum depth range from Ref. 114857. Demersal (Ref. 1970). Sublittoral; most abundant at about 150 m depth, with sporadic records below 450 m (Ref. 1695). Found in the continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 1970). Found in brackish waters of the Sea of Marmara, indicating its high degree of tolerance. Spends winter in deep waters between 200 to 400 m and migrates into shallow waters to spawn in spring and summer; optimally at water temperatures between 13° to 18°C (Ref. 1695). In the Gulf of Guinea, off west Africa, spawns in shallow inshore waters throughout the year (Refs. 417, 1695). Juveniles are found in an estuary (Ref. 122954). In the Mediterranean Sea, perennial presence of mature males and females suggest a continuous spawning period. Eggs (5 mm diameter) are laid in clusters of 12 to 25, on muddy substrates, attached to alcyonarians (sea fans), shells, etc. Hatched juveniles immediately assume a benthic lifestyle. Maturity at 1 year of age. Lifespan is at 12 to 18 months. Taken mainly as bycatch in the Mediterranean and west African trawl fisheries; a valuable local resource in the Mediterranean. Intensely fished in the Sicilian Channel. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 1695).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.). 2005. (Ref. 1695)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)