Mammalia | Carnivora
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Bathydemersal. Polar; 90°N - 0°S, 180°W - 180°E
Northeast Atlantic, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and the Arctic: Svalbard, Hudson Bay and Strait (Canada), Bering and Baltic Seas (Ref. 1394). Pusa hispida hispida: Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, North Pole, James Bay and Baffin Island (Nunavut), Strait of Belle Isle (Newfoundland), Greenland, Barents Sea, Norway, White Sea, Kamchatka, Bristol Bay in Alaska, and vagrant to Azores, Germany, Portugal, New Jersey, Southern California; Pusa hispida botnica: Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia and Finland, Sweden, Latvia; Pusa hispida ladogensis: Russia, Gulf of Finland, Lake Ladoga, White Sea; Pusa hispida saimensis: Finland; Pusa hispida ochotensis: Sea of Okhotsk, Japan, Russia, Kamchatka, and vagrant to Jiangsu, China (Ref. 1522). Climate: Circumpolar, subtropical, boreal.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 165 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 110.0 kg (Ref. 1394)
Feeds on fishes and planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 1394). Incidental injuries and death of this species are caused by commercial fishing gears, i.e., flatfish trawl, pollock trawl, cod trawl, and cod longline (Ref. 118427). Typically stays in ice-covered waters year-round (Ref. 117965). Feeds on fishes (Ref. 1394) and planktonic crustaceans like pelagic amphipods and mysids (Ref. 117965).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): -1.8 - 4.1, mean -0.4 (based on 11480 cells).
High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100)