Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Southern Atlantic and the Antarctic: Subantarctic Islands. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.7 cm; tarsus: 6.07 cm; wing: 34.41 cm.
Wingspan: 117 to 127 cm (Ref. 8812). They are preyed on by cats and rats, and fatalities are caused by long-line fishing (Ref. 84934). Surface seizing; plunging; in Subantarctic waters (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cherel, Y., C.-A. Bost, C. Guinet and H. Weimerskirch. 2005. (Ref. 89128)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100)