Anthozoa | Scleractinia
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 26 m (Ref. 269), usually 1 - 15 m (Ref. 98471). Tropical; 36°N - 35°S, 32°E - 10°E (Ref. 847)
Indo-Pacific and Western Central Atlantic: East to Hawaii and Panama, south to Lord Howe Island, west to Red Sea, and north to Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 30.0 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 269)
Colonies: Ramose, covered with varrucae; corallites plocoid, less than 1 mm across, found both on varrucae and in between. Tendency of corallites to become cerioid near branch tips. Septa: poorly developed, in 2 cycles, may be reduced to a row to a row of spines. Peritheca: echinulate. Columella: Free. Thickness of branches may vary with exposure to water movement and depth. Colonies growing in shallow water or exposed to wave action: Have thick sturdy branches. Colonies from deep calm waters tend to have thin fragile branches. Color: Mottled brown in life.
Fisheries: Used directly as construction material, to make lime, used to make concrete, and to sell as curios; Live coral collected for aquarium trade; no report of direct consumption as food (Ref. 269). Maximum depth from Ref. 83917. Forms low, compact colonies; in mono-specific or multi-species reefs throughout its range from shallow depths until 20 m; common, relatively tolerant of sedimentation and low salinity as long as there is adequate water motion (Ref. 269). Also in mangrove swamps and wharf piles (Ref. 98471). Has variable (0-50%) bleaching level and low estimated mortality in Palau (Ref. 66144). Hermaphroditic (Ref. 113712). Reproduce by fragmentation and sexual reproduction (i.e., broadcast spawning) (Ref. 269). Also, winter to spring (Ref. 113712).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hermaphroditic (Ref. 113712). Reproduce by fragmentation and sexual reproduction (i.e., broadcast spawning) (Ref. 269).
Hodgson, G. 1998. (Ref. 269)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 27.8 (based on 2460 cells).
Low vulnerability (20 of 100)