Aves | Procellariiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pacific Ocean and Northwest Atlantic: from the coasts of China, Japan and Russia eastward to continental North America. Tropical to temperate waters.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 81.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 12.7 cm; tarsus: 9.74 cm; wing: 21.3 cm.
Total Length: 68 to 74 cm (Ref. 8812). Found in the open ocean (Refs. 356, 122680). Scavengers (Ref. 356). Exhibits surface seizing behavior (Refs. 356, 122680). Courtship display preceding mating pair formation involves fanning both wings simultaneously while touching its side with its bill. Nests inland on Midway Island in calm areas; go to edge of islands and utilize updrafts to get airborne. Nesting site defended by aggression in the form of overt attack biting, threat with wide gape and vocalization, and rapid bill-clapping. Shifts between pairs in incubating eggs are long to allow far-foraging; longest recorded distance of a breeding individual of this species is 3700 km from its colony. Unable to regulate body temperature while still in the egg, even in late-incubation embryos with pip-holes; hatchlings, however, are able to regulate body temperature in response to environmental conditions. Semi-precocial. Postfledging care about 40 days. High mercury levels on feathers of young from Midway, north Pacific Ocean. Vulnerable to long-line fisheries (Ref. 87784)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breeding starts later in October characterized by the arrival of the birds on the land. Eggs are laid from middle of November to the first week of December, incubation lasts for 66 days and most have hatched by the end of January. At least one parent was observed to guard the chick until mid-March. Parents were observed to circle around mostly at the sea between April and May and return to land only to feed the fledgling. By the end of July most birds were observed to have departed the islands.
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100)