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Perna perna   (Linnaeus, 1758)

South American rock mussel

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Perna perna  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Perna perna (South American rock mussel)
Perna perna
Picture by Elliff, Carla Isobel

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Bivalvia | Mytilida | Mytilidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Benthic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 101292).  Tropical; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 113750), preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 37°N - 35°S, 64°W - 82°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Western Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea: from the southern Caribbean to Uruguay, eastern Atlantic from Portugal to Senegal, and Congo to South Africa, and in the western Indian Ocean from South Africa to Sri Lanka. Introduced in the Gulf of Mexico. Tropical and subtropical.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 17.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 271)

Short description Morphology

Shell mussel-shaped, ventral margin straight, posterior end rounded. Shell surface smooth except for fine growth lines. Hinge 1 or 2 teeth. Periostracum flaky. Colour: externally brown or light brown with concentric yellow bands near ventral margin, internally purple, nacreous.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

It is heavily exploited commercially, stocks are dwindling in southernmost part or range. Consumed boiled in juices, marinated, grilled with rice, or in a number of different local dishes. Canned industrially (Ref. 271). Minimum depth from Ref. 104365. It is attached by byssus onto hard substrates, common in high-energy rocky coasts (Ref. 271). Feeds primarily on detritus (Ref. 114808).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). 2002. (Ref. 271)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO - Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us


More information

Common names
Egg development
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Fisheries: ; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.8 - 27.8, mean 24.9 (based on 654 cells).
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)