Echinoidea | Echinoida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 90 m (Ref. 85345). Tropical, preferred 17°C (Ref. 107945); 55°N - 21°N, 17°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: from UK Scotland to West Sahara, and east to Lebanon. Subtropical and temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 6.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Feeds on marine plants and animal material (Ref. 113042).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins.
Koukouras, A. and M.-S. Kitsos. 2010. (Ref. 85345)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.4 - 20.1, mean 11.8 (based on 600 cells).