Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 800 m (Ref. 275). Tropical; 70°N - 44°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 97142)
Circumglobal in warm and temperate oceanic waters.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 37.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Also caught using jigs (Ref. 417) and dip nets (Ref. 275). Medium-sized squid; mantle length up to 300 mm (370 mm only in the northern Pacific Ocean, Nesis 1982, 1987) (Ref. 97142). Oceanic, eurythermal, meso- and epipelagic species that occurs from the surface to 150 m depth and as deep as 4, 000 m. A schooling species frequently observed "flying" above the surface to escape predators in pursuit. Very dense muscular structure and high respiration rates confirm it is a fast-swimming, slow-growing species. Paralarvae are abundant in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, particularly from January to March. Spent females have severely degenerated muscular tissue of head, mantle, fins, as well as missing tentacles, so that they appear almost gelatinous. Prey consists of fishes and squids. Predators include giant red shrimp, fishes, e.g. albacore, yellowfin tuna, lancetfish, swordfish, tiger shark, smooth hammerhead shark, spinner, Frasierâ€™s striped and Rissoâ€™s dolphins, toothed whales and fur seals (Ref. 97142). Males mature earlier than females; synchronous oocyte development with high fecundity, i.e., more or less 200,000 eggs (Ref. 97142).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Males mature earlier than females; synchronous oocyte development with high fecundity, i.e., more or less 200,000 eggs (Ref. 97142).
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.6 - 23, mean 14.3 (based on 1813 cells).
Low vulnerability (20 of 100)