Cephalopoda | Oegopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 2200 m (Ref. 275). Subtropical; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 275), preferred 25°C (Ref. 107945); 79°N - 48°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal in subtropical and polar oceanic waters.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - ? cm Max length : 45.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142); 90 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 275); max. reported age: 1.00 years (Ref. 77103)
Caught by dipnets (Ref. 417). Maximum depth from Ref. 59712. Oceanic but occurs near the surface at night (Ref. 417). Occasionally washed up on the beaches (Ref. 88739).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.7 - 17.2, mean 10.4 (based on 1723 cells).