Aves | Procellariiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others. Tropical; 70°N - 43°S, 140°E - 27°E (Ref. 125423)
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 50.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 1.63 cm; tarsus: 2.5 cm; wing: 15.4 cm.
Total Length: 19 to 22 cm; Wingspan: 45 to 48 cm (Ref. 8812). Continental shelf; <200 km (Ref. 81748). Found over sea and along shores (Ref. 83946). Pattering and dipping displays (Ref. 81748). One of the largest global population of seabirds at >10 million individuals. Goes on long transequatorial migrations, from high northern or southern latitudes across to high opposite latitudes. Found over a wide variety of habitat. Obtain food at surface of sea; an offshore feeder. Copulation occurring ashore and ovum fertilization happens at sea; delayed fertilization possible because of sperm-storage glands; allows birds to feed at sea while egg forms and prior to the long period of fasting during egg incubation. Stomach oils an energy source to the incubating bird, a species with one of the highest daily rates of mass loss while incubating its eggs. Hatchling size = 6.3 g. Chicks exhibit nestling obesity. Chicks feed sporadically in burrows; conserves water; with urine osmolality of 735 mmol/kg. Effect of oil pollution is slowed weight gain and higher chick mortality. Predation pressure from Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) as a consequence of closure of eastern Canadian ground-fishery (1992-1999) which eliminated discard and offal food source for these predatory birds (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Birds breed when they reach 3 years of age; although some adults do not return in the breeding colony annually, i.e., those who were able to breed successfully in the previous year do not breed the following year.
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 1.7 - 26.1, mean 10.1 (based on 2430 cells).
Low vulnerability (12 of 100)