Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 500 m (Ref. 275). Temperate, preferred 16°C (Ref. 107945); 39°S - 56°S, 165°E - 176°W (Ref. 120902)
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand; Known from the South Island, the southeast coast of the North Island, also from south of the Aukland Island and west to the Chatham Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 42.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 275)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
): 8 - 14.5, mean 11.8 (based on 53 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100)