Polychaeta | Aciculata
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish. Tropical
Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean: Central America to northern Brazil, Germany, Spain and Italy.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 2823)
Species' maximum length from the Belgian part of the North Sea (Ref. 7882). Found along the near-coastal zone (Refs. 7882, 96352) and estuaries (Ref. 96352). Inhabits sandy bottoms (Ref. 2780). A robust free-living bristle worm more often found in fine sand to mud substrates (Refs. 7882, 96352). A carnivore-scavenger that exhibits cannibalism (Ref. 96352).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults.
MarineSpecies.org. 2050. (Ref. 3477)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models