Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Arctic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 93.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 9.98 cm; tarsus: 5.45 cm; wing: 43.52 cm.
Found on beach and shoreline and open ocean (Ref. 116102). In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, this species is known to be the largest consumer of the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, but not primarily dependent on this as a food source and is known to switch preys. They forage offshore over a wide area, mainly surface-feeding by scooping prey from the water although with relatively limited ability to exploit the water column (Ref. 95711). Exhibits plunge diving (Ref. 356). They form nesting colonies with breeding pairs sharing incubation and chick-rearing duties. Adults feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.3 - 11.9, mean 9 (based on 488 cells).