Aves | Anseriformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Boreal
Inland Asia, the Mediterranean, Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. Subtropical to boreal.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 59.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.285 cm; tarsus: 4.73 cm; wing: 27.15 cm.
Surface diving; dabbling; coastal. Winters: Norway to Spain, Black, Caspian and Mediterranean Seas; coastal East Asia, south to Japan and China; Atlantic and Pacific coastlines to Baja California, south Carolina, Florida, and Gulf coast (Ref. 356). They breed on wooded coastlines, small freshwater lakes, pools and rivers. They inhabit areas with boulder-covered or small rocky islands available for nesting with extensive herbaceous vegetation, shrubs and low trees. For the non-breeding population, winters are in shallow areas of inshore coastal waters; especially in water inlets where there are large mussel-beds but they also occur in freshwater habitats such as lakes and estuaries during migration (Ref. 83520). Feeds on clams, snails, barnacles, mussels and crabs found along the coast (Ref. 94965).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
BirdLife International. 2010. (Ref. 83520)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.2 - 17.2, mean 9.2 (based on 2299 cells).