Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others. Temperate; 30°S - 50°S, 160°E - 175°W
Southwest Pacific: Endemic to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 66.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 5.5 kg (Ref. 356)
Total breeding population is 1,410 to 1,770 pairs, while individually it’s a total of 4,028 to 5,057 birds. They are threatened by habitat clearance, fires, and trampling of nests. Eggs and chicks are predated on by dogs, cats, pigs and stoats (Ref. 84934). This is a shy and timid species, where individuals or small groups are found at sea. They nest singly or in loose colonies in temperate forests or on grassy coastal cliffs (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356). Breeds under coastal vegetation or among roots (Ref. 84934).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
Endangered (EN) (A2ade; B2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)); Date assessed: 07 August 2018
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models