Bivalvia | Cardiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 270 m (Ref. 95344). Polar
Arctic, Northern Atlantic, Northeast Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 3.8 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 95344); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 2823)
Maximum depth from Ref. 117961. Occurs from the upper part of the intertidal down to the shallow subtidal zone (Ref. 76547). Circumboreal and panarctic. Buries shallow to 20 cm under muddy-sandy substrate, commonly in bays and estuaries (Refs. 95344, 95753). In the northern Baltic Sea, known to thrive in eutrophic conditions (Ref. 95752). It is infaunal on sand and eelgrass beds and epifaunal on eelgrass beds (Ref. 95819). Deposit and suspension feeder (Refs. 76547, 96470). Surface deposit feeder (Ref. 66387). Feeds from the surface of the sediment using their long siphons (Ref. 7882), and is a subsurface detritivore (Refs. 95728, 96470). Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Vakily, J.M. 1992. (Ref. 7693)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.3 - 14.2, mean 9.7 (based on 850 cells).
High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100)