Cephalopoda | Myopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Demersal; depth range 68 - 431 m (Ref. 114857). Subtropical, preferred 24°C (Ref. 107945); 61°N - 28°S, 21°W - 47°E (Ref. 275)
Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Western Indian Ocean: 20°N to 60°N, west African coast south to the Canary Islands and the Red Sea except Baltic Sea. Subtropical to polar waters.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm Max length : 93.7 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 41 cm ML (female)
Maximum size for males is 93.7 cm, mantle length (Ref. 104052). Caught with very small boats, using jigs in daytime at depths of 80 to 100 m (Ref. 2760). Occurs in tropical and subtropical climates (Ref. 275). Found In inshore waters over rocky ground at the start of the season and on sandy or muddy bottom later in the season (Ref. 106900). Feeds on small, juvenile fishes, other cephalopods, crustaceans, polychaetes (Ref. 275).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.3 - 16.2, mean 10.6 (based on 229 cells).
High vulnerability (56 of 100).