Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Northern Pacific, Northern Atlantic and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Large, cliff-nesting gulls that exhibit high site fidelity. In the Canadian Arctic, form small colonies on coastal cliffs, tens to hundreds of kilometers apart. Adults feed at sea, away from its colony; parents feed their chicks mainly fish ( Ref. 95169).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models