Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, Arctic and Pacific Asia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 77.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.26 cm; tarsus: 7.41 cm; wing: 45.9 cm.
Total Length: 66 to 77 cm; Wingspan: 132 to 142 cm (Ref. 8812). Found on bay and nearshore, beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Coastal; scavenger; kleptoparasitism; (Ref. 356). Prey on cliff-nesting colonial seabirds, usually within a limited area within the whole colony and on locations that are disadvantageous for the colonial birds to defend such as on broad ledges or sloping cliffs. Vulnerable to pollution because of their foraging, prey, or nesting habit near shore, close to industrial or agricultural pollutants (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.4 - 13.3, mean 7.5 (based on 1860 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100)