Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 510.00 g (Ref. 356)
Total Length: 44 to 47 cm (Ref. 8812). A coastal kleptoparasite exhibiting plunge diving (Ref. 356). Common scavenger on beaches, also catches fish at water surface. Raids colonies of seabirds for eggs and chicks (Ref. 801).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100)