Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; brackish. Subtropical
Indo-West Pacific, Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean: Europe and Asia. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 350.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.6 cm; wing: 32.0 cm.
Total Length: 38 to 46 cm; Wingspan: 94 cm (Ref. 8812). Dipping; surface plunging; coastal, favours sheltered lagoons and embayments (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100)